Humanities and Social Sciences

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Obstacles of Development Agents for Gender Equality in Agricultural Extension Services in Finfinnee Surrounding Special Zone and East Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Received: Oct. 14, 2023    Accepted: Oct. 28, 2023    Published: Nov. 09, 2023
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Abstract

Agriculture comprises of a number of farming activities, where both men and women are involved in multiple diverse nature of field operations. In spite of their high contribution in farm and non-farm activities, there exist gender disparities with reference to agricultural extension, advisory services. The present study was designed to identify the barriers limiting the active participation of both genders (men and women) in agricultural operations and address gender disparities in agricultural extension. The study was conducted in five districts in East Shewa and Finfinnee surrounding special zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Personal interviews were conducted from male and female development agents, resulting a total sample size of 60 (49 male and 11 female). A structured questionnaire was prepared as the research instrument for data collection.. The collected data were coded on SPSS for analysis and interpretation. Results showed that around 87% of male farmers participated at a high rate, whereas the majority (78.3%) of female farmers participated at a medium rate. Female heads of households were more involved in agriculture and livestock production compared to their wives. Notably, women displayed greater engagement in animal production practices compared to crop production. In spite of their participation in crops and livestock activities, male heads of households had superior access to agricultural extension, advisory services, information, and credit facilities compared to female farmers. This is due lack of proper transport facilities for female extension personnel, non-availability of female extension personnel, lack of recognition and appreciation of rural female’s work, lack of provision of agricultural credit facilities for women and lack of decision making authority among female workers. The results of the t-test statistics showed that there is highly significant difference in opinion of male and female respondents regarding barriers to gender equality in agricultural extension in Ethiopia. In the light of findings of present research, authors suggest policy guidelines related to enhancement educational as well as skill level of rural women as well as development agents in the community through education and training to narrow the gender gap/inequality in agricultural extension.

DOI 10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11
Published in Humanities and Social Sciences ( Volume 11, Issue 6, November 2023 )
Page(s) 182-187
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Development Agent, Extension Service, Gender Equality, Obstacles

References
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[2] Azanaw A and A Tassew. 2017. Gender equality in rural development and agricultural extension in fogera district, ethiopia: implementation, access to and control over resources. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2017; 17 (4): 12509-12533 DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.80.16665.
[3] Belay, K. and Abebaw, D. 2004: Challenges facing agricultural extension agents: A case study from South-western Ethiopia. African Development Review 16 (1): 139–168.
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[6] Cohen, M. J. and Mamush Lemma. (2011). Agricultural Extension Services and Gender Equality: An Institutional Analysis of Four Districts in Ethiopia. IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01094, Washington DC. P. 24-25.
[7] Dev, S. M. 2011. Climate change, rural livelihoods and agriculture (Focus on Food Security) in Asia-Pacific Region. Report No. WP-2011- 014. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai, India.
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[10] Hanif, U. S. H. Syed, R. Ahmad and K. A. Malik. 2010. Economic impact of climate change on the agricultural sector of Punjab. Pak. Dev. Rev. 49 (4 Part II): 771–798.
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[12] Lanz, K., S. Bieri and L. Frankauser, 2012. Critical gender issues with regard to food, land and water. A compendium for policy-makers, NGOs and researchers. NCCR North-South Dialogue, pp. 40.
[13] Lemma, M., Gizaw, S., Etafa, A., Mulema, A. and Wieland, B. 2020. Gender integration in the Ethiopian agricultural extension system: A literature review. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.
[14] Luqman, M., R. Saqib, X. Shiwei and Y. Wen. 2018. Barriers to Gender Equality in Agricultural Extension in Pakistan: Evidences from District Sargodha. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 34 (1): 136-143. DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.sja/2018/34.1.136.143
[15] Mamush Lemma, Wole Kinati, Annet Mulema, Zekarias Bassa, Abiro Tigabe, Hiwot Desta, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, and Tadious Asfaw. (2018). Report of community conversations about gender roles in livestock.
[16] MoA and ATA. 2014. National strategy for Ethiopia’s agricultural extension system. Vision, systemic bottlenecks and priority interventions. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ministry of Agriculture.
[17] MoA and ATA. 2017. Ethiopia’s agricultural extension system. Vision, systemic bottlenecks and priority interventions. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ministry of Agriculture.
[18] Mulema, A. A., Farnworth, C. R. and Colverson, K. E. (2016). Gender-based constraints and opportunities to women’s participation in the small ruminant value chain in Ethiopia: A community capitals analysis. Community Development 48: 1–19.
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    Mekuriaw, T. (2023). Obstacles of Development Agents for Gender Equality in Agricultural Extension Services in Finfinnee Surrounding Special Zone and East Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Humanities and Social Sciences, 11(6), 182-187. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11

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    ACS Style

    Mekuriaw, T. Obstacles of Development Agents for Gender Equality in Agricultural Extension Services in Finfinnee Surrounding Special Zone and East Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Humanit. Soc. Sci. 2023, 11(6), 182-187. doi: 10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11

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    AMA Style

    Mekuriaw T. Obstacles of Development Agents for Gender Equality in Agricultural Extension Services in Finfinnee Surrounding Special Zone and East Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Humanit Soc Sci. 2023;11(6):182-187. doi: 10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11,
      author = {Truayinet Mekuriaw},
      title = {Obstacles of Development Agents for Gender Equality in Agricultural Extension Services in Finfinnee Surrounding Special Zone and East Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia},
      journal = {Humanities and Social Sciences},
      volume = {11},
      number = {6},
      pages = {182-187},
      doi = {10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.hss.20231106.11},
      abstract = {Agriculture comprises of a number of farming activities, where both men and women are involved in multiple diverse nature of field operations. In spite of their high contribution in farm and non-farm activities, there exist gender disparities with reference to agricultural extension, advisory services. The present study was designed to identify the barriers limiting the active participation of both genders (men and women) in agricultural operations and address gender disparities in agricultural extension. The study was conducted in five districts in East Shewa and Finfinnee surrounding special zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Personal interviews were conducted from male and female development agents, resulting a total sample size of 60 (49 male and 11 female). A structured questionnaire was prepared as the research instrument for data collection.. The collected data were coded on SPSS for analysis and interpretation. Results showed that around 87% of male farmers participated at a high rate, whereas the majority (78.3%) of female farmers participated at a medium rate. Female heads of households were more involved in agriculture and livestock production compared to their wives. Notably, women displayed greater engagement in animal production practices compared to crop production. In spite of their participation in crops and livestock activities, male heads of households had superior access to agricultural extension, advisory services, information, and credit facilities compared to female farmers. This is due lack of proper transport facilities for female extension personnel, non-availability of female extension personnel, lack of recognition and appreciation of rural female’s work, lack of provision of agricultural credit facilities for women and lack of decision making authority among female workers. The results of the t-test statistics showed that there is highly significant difference in opinion of male and female respondents regarding barriers to gender equality in agricultural extension in Ethiopia. In the light of findings of present research, authors suggest policy guidelines related to enhancement educational as well as skill level of rural women as well as development agents in the community through education and training to narrow the gender gap/inequality in agricultural extension.
    },
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Obstacles of Development Agents for Gender Equality in Agricultural Extension Services in Finfinnee Surrounding Special Zone and East Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia
    AU  - Truayinet Mekuriaw
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    JF  - Humanities and Social Sciences
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    PB  - Science Publishing Group
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    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.hss.20231106.11
    AB  - Agriculture comprises of a number of farming activities, where both men and women are involved in multiple diverse nature of field operations. In spite of their high contribution in farm and non-farm activities, there exist gender disparities with reference to agricultural extension, advisory services. The present study was designed to identify the barriers limiting the active participation of both genders (men and women) in agricultural operations and address gender disparities in agricultural extension. The study was conducted in five districts in East Shewa and Finfinnee surrounding special zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Personal interviews were conducted from male and female development agents, resulting a total sample size of 60 (49 male and 11 female). A structured questionnaire was prepared as the research instrument for data collection.. The collected data were coded on SPSS for analysis and interpretation. Results showed that around 87% of male farmers participated at a high rate, whereas the majority (78.3%) of female farmers participated at a medium rate. Female heads of households were more involved in agriculture and livestock production compared to their wives. Notably, women displayed greater engagement in animal production practices compared to crop production. In spite of their participation in crops and livestock activities, male heads of households had superior access to agricultural extension, advisory services, information, and credit facilities compared to female farmers. This is due lack of proper transport facilities for female extension personnel, non-availability of female extension personnel, lack of recognition and appreciation of rural female’s work, lack of provision of agricultural credit facilities for women and lack of decision making authority among female workers. The results of the t-test statistics showed that there is highly significant difference in opinion of male and female respondents regarding barriers to gender equality in agricultural extension in Ethiopia. In the light of findings of present research, authors suggest policy guidelines related to enhancement educational as well as skill level of rural women as well as development agents in the community through education and training to narrow the gender gap/inequality in agricultural extension.
    
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Author Information
  • Ethiopian Institutes of Agricultural Research, Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

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